Components

Crisis incidents may result in difficult working conditions for Urban Search-and-Rescue (USaR) crews. INACHUS aims to achieve a significant time reduction related to Urban Search and Rescue (USaR) phase by providing wide-area situation awareness solutions for improved detection and localisation of the trapped victims assisted by simulation tools for predicting structural failures and a holistic decision support mechanism incorporating operational procedures and resources of relevant actors.

In more details, INACHUS aims to provide the following tools and technologies:

 

victim localisation

Ground-Based Seismic Sensor system (GBSS)


by FOI

The Ground-Based Seismic Sensor system (GBSS) is a tool for detecting and locating knocking signals from victims trapped in debris heaps. The system can automatically detect and locate knocking signals even in noisy environments, which is known to be a very challenging task today, as existing operational systems require human operators to listen to and interpret the received signals through headphones.

In addition to improving the chance of detecting signals in noisy environments, the automatic data analysis in GBSS gives improved persistency as it can operate and process large of amounts of data without human involvement. A large number of vibration sensors can also be connected allowing for covering larger areas.

 

Moreover, detected signals are visualized on a map to help the USaR team quickly and accurately understand where the signal is coming from and to share information with other teams.

The SurfaceRadar, also called HumanFinder, is a UWB beam steering radar dedicated to searching for survivals from disasters. It provides information on whether there is a human or not in its scanning scope by measuring the small movement such as breathing, as well as supplying the direction to the target. It enhances the high range resolution of an impulse UWB radar, with beamforming to get better location information of the target. The INACHUS project deals within the area of effective USaR operation frameworks to minimise the amount of time needed to locate victims, while also aiding rescuers in finding the safest, most effective way to reach victims trapped in collapsed buildings.

SurfaceRadar

by CINSIDE / FOI

StickRadar

by CINSIDE / FOI

The RobotRadar is a miniaturized radar system, one of several sensors
integrated in the INACHUS Snake Robot. The robot is intended to crawl into the rubble and get closer to the trapped victims, increasing the chance to find deeply buried humans and save more lives. The robot radar detects movements in five directions around the robot body. This gives a good direction estimation to the detected movement.

 

The Mobile Phone Detector (MPD) investigates another approach to find trapped victims is debris heaps. Smartphones are ubiquitous nowadays and such it is a reasonable assumption that wherever a phone can be detected, a person is most likely in its direct vicinity. Consequently, the MPD can survey the local environment for mobile devices to help determine possible victim locations.

Mobile Phone Detector

by DIGINEXT

 

collapse simulation

Bullet Constraints Builder (BCB)

 

by LUAS

The Bullet Constraints Builder (BCB) is a free script add-on that complements the free 3D software suite Blender with a collapse simulation tool.  The primary purpose of the BCB is to connect separate rigid bodies with sophisticated constraint arrangements that allow complex collapse simulations. The BCB is a flexible tool that allows users with little experience to use it, but it offers also advanced options for experts and possibilities for fine tuning. The simulation workflow is to a large extend automatized so that little manual work is needed. The BCB prepares the building model for simulation and after the collapse scenario (e.g. pillar removal or loading of an earthquake record) is defined by the user it transfers the model to the connected physics engine that solves the simulation. The manual interaction by the user, is essentially limited to the setting of strength parameters and the definition of the collapse scenario.2

Extreme Loading® for Structures Software or ELS, is an advanced non-linear structural analysis software tool designed specifically for structural engineers. ELS allows structural engineers to study the 3D behavior of structures through both the continuum and discrete stages of loading. Unlike many structural analysis software tools which are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM), ELS utilizes a non-linear solver based on the Applied Element Method (AEM). This allows ELS is to automatically analyze structural behavior during elastic and inelastic modes including the automatic yielding of reinforcement, detection, and generation of plastic hinges, buckling & post-buckling, crack propagation, membrane action & P-Delta effect, and separation of elements. The resulting debris and impacts with structural elements are also automatically analyzed and stress redistribution is inherently calculated.

Extreme Loading® for Structures Software (ELS) 


by ASI

Extreme Loading® for Structures Software or ELS, is an advanced non-linear structural analysis software tool designed specifically for structural engineers. ELS allows structural engineers to study the 3D behavior of structures through both the continuum and discrete stages of loading. Unlike many structural analysis software tools which are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM), ELS utilizes a non-linear solver based on the Applied Element Method (AEM). This allows ELS is to automatically analyze structural behavior during elastic and inelastic modes including the automatic yielding of reinforcement, detection, and generation of plastic hinges, buckling & post-buckling, crack propagation, membrane action & P-Delta effect, and separation of elements. The resulting debris and impacts with structural elements are also automatically analyzed and stress redistribution is inherently calculated.

Extreme Loading® for Structures Software (ELS) 


by ASI

Mapping tool for the priorization of USaR operations in urban surroundings

by EMI

Within the EU project INACHUS new technologies are developed to support rescue teams after catastrophic events, such as an earthquake. For their overall orientation in the chaos and rubble left after an earthquake, rescue teams need support for their efficient and well-directed employment. Therefor possible rescue paths have to be determined and possible targets prioritized for the respective urban area. Also on the level of single building structures, voids with potential survivors have to be identified in an automated way. At the same time, the stability of the building has to be assessed for safety reasons of the rescuers themselves.

 

This is where EMI comes into action by advancing its risk-analysis tool VITRUV (http://www.vitruv-tool.eu/) for the project. The tool visualizes structure damages due to earthquakes and the number of persons per building (by occupancy analysis) for whole city quarters dependent on the time of the day. This information is essential for deciding where rescue missions are to be directed. Furthermore, EMI’s cavity identification tool (CIT) localizes possible voids in single buildings by means of modelling and simulation. These voids may be used by rescuers for entering the rubble or survivors may be trapped inside.

 

Decision support

Multi-source Information

Fusion Engine

by TELINT

The Multi-source Information Fusion Engine (MIFE) is a data fusion module in which data coming from the various sensing elements on the field are combined, examined and processed. The MIFE includes the Data Fusion Mediation Server, which incorporates expert reasoning applied to the collected data.

The expert reasoning uses the INACHUS Ontological Model as a basis for the structure of the INACHUS data and their interrelations, and it also conforms to intelligent algorithms and pre-defined rules.

The end result is the location of possible survivors and/or the presence of dangerous gases. This result is published in the Fusion Backend, which in turn sends the information to the COP as an alert message.

wide area surveillance

 

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 
(UAVs)


by ONERA

A major advantage of a laser-based 3D mapping system on UAV is its ability to accurately capture geometry in poorly lit areas, through narrow passages or through vegetation where the performance of image-based techniques is lower. The embedded LIDAR can also collect high-resolution 3D data even in low visibility or bad weather conditions (haze, fog, rain or snow).


Fitting USaR requirements in the INACHUS project

 

communication platform

Communication System and Infrared Camera

 

by ICCS

Mobile Gateway, Reliable Communication and Real-Time Locating System 

 

The communication platform that INACHUS developed manages the seamless interoperation, the interconnection between other networks (cellular, etc.) abd provides redundancy and recovery functionality. For extending the capabilities and range of the crisis network in case of failures and/or congestion and to provide a distributed architecture, portable gateways and a long-range communication solution where designed and implemented. The gateways support the functionality of any other mobile USaR center as an alternative and cost effective solution in an integrated ad-hoc manner but with redundancy, extendibility and security capabilities to assure robustness, flexibility and reliability.

Usage of infrared cameras for human presence indication

 

inachus robot and embedded sensors

INACHUS

 Robot

by SINTEF

The INACHUS robot is a snake-like robot prototype designed and manufactured to help USaR teams finding and communicating with victims under a collapsed building.

The robot is remotely controlled by a rugged tablet PC and an operator can drive the robot under the rubble by entering through small holes (20cm x 20cm of cross-section). The robot has two video cameras for inspection and guidance. In addition, it is meant to work as a mobile platform carrying different sensors, such as a radar to detect movements, an electronic nose to detect human presence and dangerous gases, and an infrared camera to detect human presence in case of poor visibility. The output of these sensors is visible in the integrated graphical user interface running on the tablet PC.

The robot is able to estimate its position based on a real-time locating system. Finally, a two-way audio communication system is available to allow the rescuers to communicate with the victims under the rubble. The INACHUS robot prototype comes with a case containing the power supply, an industrial grade PC, the necessary communication devices. The case is tethered to the robot via a power and communication cable.

The electronic nose (e-nose) developed in the INACHUS project is a sensing device that is located on the INACHUS robot platform as part of its sensor payload. The e-nose’s primary purpose and functionality is the detection of human presence in confined spaces. Confined spaces are formed in partially or fully collapsed urban buildings that could be caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes or as a consequence of an explosion. The e-nose can also detect many air related hazards in confined spaces. These include the most typical asphyxiation hazards, toxic gases and combustible gases.

Electronic Nose-Gas Detector
(E-nose)

by M2G

 

decision & planning

Real-Time Locating System (RTLS)

 

by IK4-Tekniker

The Real-Time Locating System (RTLS) developed in INACHUS by IK4-Tekniker is a solution specifically defined and designed for the INACHUS Snake Robot. This system is integrated into the robot to determine the absolute (GPS coordinates) and relative (local coordinates relative to a defined reference system) location of the INACHUS robot head module under the rubble.

Portal & mobile application for search & rescue operations
(SaR-ESS)

by EXODUS

INACHUS Portal and mobile application for search and rescue operations (SaR-ESS) Portal and Mobile application will visualize, analyze, and manage real-time the following:

 

Data collection from the heterogeneous sources of the project providing enhanced intelligence and creating a unique information space for supporting decisions of emergency and crisis management.

Information collection and flow between the different authorities and agencies which are involved in the crisis event management.
 

Digital Transformation of standard crisis forms and reports, greatly facilitating first responders and crisis managers.

The Common Operational Picture (COP) makes the link between the end users and the entire INACHUS system by providing a comprehensive map-centric view on the incident site. The rich visualization capabilities of the COP in 2D and 3D allow the end user an intuitive access to the incident situation, which increases the overall situational awareness and aids the decision process of USaR personnel on strategic as well as tactic and operational levels.

The environment services are provided by a dedicated server that integrates free and open source solutions and by dedicated tools on the client side to publish and manage the data. Cartographic data, GIS data, 3D models and point clouds can be served to the Common Operational Picture from this secured OGC-compliant web-service.

Common Operational Picture (COP) with Environment Services

by DIGINEXT